Desordem na governança global e o caos nas mudanças climáticas

Palavras-chave: Limites planetários, Crises de governança, Ideologia do crescimento, Globalismo versus populismo, Soluções alternativas

Resumo

Os cientistas alertam para o fato de que a atividade humana no Antropoceno está provocando a transgressão de vários limites planetários. A equação população, meio ambiente e desenvolvimento ficou insolúvel. Este artigo revisa a trajetória das mudanças climáticas, discute as limitações dos esforços atuais para lidar com elas e analisa a atual crise na governança global, além de refletir sobre os riscos que esse imbróglio político apresenta para o nosso futuro ambiental. As respostas globais são ineficazes devido à deterioração do multilaterismo e à promoção generalizada do crescimento econômico insustentável baseado no consumismo. O descontentamento com as consequências da globalização desestabilizou a governança nacional e, no processo, corroeu ainda mais as perspectivas de uma governança global eficaz para enfrentar crises sociais, políticas e ambientais simbióticas. A frustração com a globalização está proporcionando aos populistas uma plataforma para atrair eleitores com esquemas ingênuos que incluem o negacionismo. Ao mesmo tempo, uma nova divisão do poder econômico, político e científico está surgindo com a Belt and Road Initiative da China. Discutem-se caminhos potenciais e obstáculos para o multilaterismo na tentativa de resolver esse dilema. A fé cega na tecnologia, o negacionismo e a difusão da cultura de consumo dificultam os esforços multilaterais contra as ameaças ambientais. Infelizmente, parece que eleitores, instituições e políticas só se ajustarão depois que a intensificação dos desastres climáticos forçar uma mudança radical de mentalidade.

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Biografia do Autor

George Martine, Independent Consultant

George Martine is a sociologist/demographer with a Ph.D from Brown University and M.A. from Fordham University. He is a former President of the Brazilian Population Association, Senior Fellow at the Harvard Center for Population and Development, Director of UNFPA’s Technical Team for Latin America and the Caribbean and Director of the Institute for Society, Population and Nature, inter alia. He currently works as a consultant on issues of social development, population and environment.

Jose Eustaquio Alves, ENCE/IBGE

José Eustáquio Diniz Alves is a sociologist with a Master’s in Economics and Ph.D. in Demography from the Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional (CEDEPLAR) at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), and post-doctorate at Population Studies Center (Nepo/Unicamp). Professor and researcher at the Federal University of Ouro Preto from 1987-2002, and at the National School of Statistics (ENCE) of the Brazilian Census Bureau (IBGE) from 2002-2019, holding a position of coordinator of the Graduate Department from 2005 to March 2009. Vice-president and treasurer of the Brazilian Population Association (ABEP) from 2005-2008 and treasurer of the Latin American Population Association (ALAP) from 2013-2014. Currently he is an independent consultant.

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Publicado
2019-08-16
Como Citar
Martine, G., & Alves, J. E. (2019). Desordem na governança global e o caos nas mudanças climáticas. Revista Brasileira De Estudos De População, 36, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.20947/S102-3098a0075
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